Laboratory

Calcium: Range, Sources, OCPC and Arsenazo III Method of Measurement

About 99% of the calcium in the body is present in the bones and teeth. It occupies about 2% of the total body weight of an adult. There are two main functions of calcium. It helps in Intracellular activities such as muscle contraction and glycogen metabolism. It also helps in extracellular activities such as blood clotting, bone mineralization, glycogen metabolism, and the transmission of nerve impulses. A decrease in the calcium level can be an indication of osteoporosis, under dialysis, hyperparathyroidism, and defective intestinal absorption. Similarly, an increase can be an indication of hypoparathyroidismmalignant diseases, etc.

So, measurement of calcium is important. You can measure the level of calcium in your body by an OCPC method, Arsenazo III method, etc.

Calcium Normal Range

The amount of calcium in a body depends on the age of the person.

1. Serum

  • Children (10 days- 2 years):- 9 to 11 mg/dl
  • Children (2 years – 12 years):- 8.8 to 10.8 mg/dl
  • Adult (12 years – 60 years):- 8.4 to 10.2 mg/dl
  • Adult (60 years – 90 years:- 8.8 to 10.2 mg/dl
  • Adults (> 90 years):- 8.2 – 9.6 mg/dl

2. Urine

  • 75 – 300 mg/24 hours (during normal food intake)

Sources of Calcium

Since calcium is not produced within the human body, we need to depend upon the food we take.  Some of the major sources of calcium are as follows.

  • Dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, etc.
  • Some of the cereals, nuts, grains, etc.
  • Some of the leafy vegetables such as turnip leaves, broccoli, watercress, etc.

Causes of Calcium Deficiency

The cause of deficiency of calcium in the human body can depend upon numerous factors. Some of the causes are stated below.

  • Deficiency of phosphate, vitamin d, etc.
  • Over-consumption of magnesium, laxatives, caffeine, soda, alcohol, etc.
  • Prolonged use of chemotherapy
  • Kidney failure, pancreatitis, etc.

In case of a low level of calcium in the body, one needs to take a proper diet. This, I have stated in the above paragraph. Besides that, you may even use supplements. For more details of these supplements please go through this video.

OCPC Method for Calcium Measurement

1. Principle Reaction

Calcium reacts with o-cresolphtalein complexone (OCPC) in an alkaline medium to form a purple-colored calcium-o-cresolphthalein-complex. The intensity of the color is directly proportional to the concentration of calcium in the sample.

2. Sample Preparation

The table shown below for calcium measurement is valid for Tulip, Accurex, and Analyticon. So, if you have the reagent kit of any other company, then there can be minor fluctuation in the method.

If you have two reagents, then make a working solution out of them. The ratio of their composition will be given in the literature of your reagent kit or the reagent bottle. Else, a single reagent can also be found based on the company. In that case, that single reagent kit will act as a working solution for you.

For making a sample test, mix the sample with the working solution. Similarly, for making a reagent blank (Accurex), feed the working solution directly into the semi-auto biochemistry analyzer. In the case of Analyticon and Tulip, replace the sample/calibrator with the same volume of distilled water, and add it to the working solution.

Always remember that sipping volume < sample volume + reagent volume. So that means, make sufficient sample volume to feed into the semi-auto biochemistry analyzer. Else, it will suck up the air and will give the fault reading.

If the concentration of calcium is too high (out of range/ non-linear), then dilute the sample with 0.9% NaCl or distilled water at the ratio of 1:y. Finally, when you get the result, multiply the value with the dilution factor (1+y).

3. Programming in a Semi-auto Biochemistry Analyzer (OCPC Method)

Calcium Measurement
OCPC Method

Arsenazo III Method for Calcium Measurement

1. Principle Reaction

Calcium reacts with Arsenazo III  at neutral pH, to form a blue-colored complex. The intensity of the color is directly proportional to the concentration of calcium in the given sample.

2. Sample Preparation

The table shown below for calcium measurement is valid for Spinreact and Diasys. So, if you have the reagent kit of any other company, then there can be minor fluctuation in the method.

For making a sample test, mix the sample with the working solution. Similarly, for making a reagent blank, replace the working solution with the same volume of distilled water and then feed into the semi-auto biochemistry analyzer.

If the concentration of calcium is too high (out of range/ non-linear), then dilute the sample with 0.9% NaCl or distilled water at the ratio of 1:y. Finally, when you get the result, multiply the value with the dilution factor (1+y).

3. Programming in a Semi-auto Biochemistry Analyzer (Arsenazo III Method)

Calcium Measurement, Arsenazo III Method
Arsenazo III Method

Handling of Calcium Reagents

  • Wear an apron and surgical gloves before carrying out the measurement.
  • Look for the expiry date of the reagents during purchase and measurement time. Suppliers tend to give you reagent kits with a low expiry interval.
  • Once you open the reagent bottles, the lifespan will decrease. So, look in your reagent kit literature for that.
  • Bring the reagents and samples to room temperature before you can carry out any measurement.
  • Always store reagents in the refrigerator when not in use.

Supplier of Calcium Reagent

Mandawi Enterprises Pvt. Ltd is an authorized dealer of the reagents of Spinreact Company.  So, if you want to purchase the reagent, then you can contact the given number (+977 9849034738). The company is located in Thapathali, Kathmandu. As the price keeps on fluctuating, you need to contact the supplier to know the current price.

 

 

 

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