Uric acid is the final product, formed by the metabolism of purine in human organisms. Since it is excreted in large amounts by the kidney it is an important parameter for renal function tests (RFT). It can be measured with the help of the uricase/PAP method using a biochemistry analyzer.
Uric acid Normal Range
The value of uric acid can depend upon numerous factors such as age, gender, habitat, diet, etc. Thus the approximate range of normal uric acid levels in normal people is given below.
- Male:- 3.4 – 7.0 mg/dl
- Female:- 2.4 – 5.7 mg/dl
- Morning urine:- 37 – 92 mg/dl
- 24 hours urine:- 200 – 1000 mg
If you have uric acid out of range, then you need to visit the doctor as soon as possible.
Uric acid Symptoms
How to Control Uric acid?
1. Limit purine-rich food
We know that the metabolism of purine in the human body leads to the formation of uric acid. So, by limiting the consumption of purine-rich foods, we can control uric acid.
Some of the sources of purine-rich food are as follows.
- Some types of fish, shellfish, seafood, etc.
- Some types of meats such as turkey, bacon, etc.
- All kinds of alcoholic beverages.
2. Drink plenty of water
Water will allow the kidney to flush out uric acid from the blood. So, drink plenty of water at regular intervals.
3. Avoid alcoholism
First thing is that alcohol is rich in purine. Also, alcohol has got a negative effect on the kidney which is responsible for the filtration of uric acid. Thus, it is better to avoid alcoholic beverages.
4. Lose weight
Fat cells make more uric acid in comparison to muscle cells. Thus, it is better to lose extra weight.
Uric acid Test Method
(Uricase PAP Method)
1. Principle Reaction
Uricase breaks down uric acid into allantoin and hydrogen peroxide. Then the formed hydrogen peroxide again reacts with phenolic compound and 4 amino antipyrine in the presence of the catalyst ‘peroxidase’, to form red-colored quinone imine dye. The concentration of this red color is measured with the help of a semi-auto biochemistry analyzer. This gives us the concentration of uric acid in the sample.
2. Sample Preparation
The table shown below for uric acid measurement is valid for tulip, accurex, analyticon, and diasys. So, if you have the reagent kit of any other company, then there can be minor fluctuation in the method.
If you have two reagents, then make a working solution out of them. The ratio of their composition will be given in the literature of your reagent kit or the reagent bottle. Else, a single reagent can also be found based on the company. In that case, that single reagent kit will act as a working solution for you.
For making a sample test or for doing the calibration, mix the calibrator/sample with the working solution. Similarly, for making a reagent blank, replace the calibrator/sample with the same volume of distilled water (tulip, diasys). Then, mix the distilled water with the working solution. For companies such as analyticon, accurex, etc. directly feed the working solution for reagent blank.
If you need to do any external incubation at the body temperature, then you can use an incubator or dry bath.
Always remember that sipping volume < sample volume + reagent volume. So that means, make sufficient sample volume to feed into the semi-auto biochemistry analyzer. Else, it will suck up the air and will give the fault reading.
If the concentration of uric acid is too high (out of range/ non-linear), then dilute the sample with 0.9% NaCl or distilled water at the ratio of 1:y. Finally, when you get the result, multiply the value with the dilution factor (1+y).
Handling of Uric acid Reagent
- Wear an apron and surgical gloves before carrying out the measurement.
- Look for the expiry date of the reagents during purchase and measurement time. Suppliers tend to give you reagent kits with a low expiry interval.
- Once you open the reagent bottles, the lifespan will decrease. So, look in your reagent kit literature for that.
- Bring the reagents and samples to room temperature before you can carry out any measurement.
- Always store reagents in the refrigerator when not in use.